IMPORTANT DATES

30 September 2013
Balkema full length papers deadline

NEWS

CMM-2013
Photo galleries aviable

Poland

Some basic information

Poland is situated in Central Europe occupying 117,993 square miles (312,685 sq km.). It borders with Germany to the West, Czech Republic and Slovakia to the South, Russia, Byelorussia, Lithuania and Ukraine to the east and the Baltic Sea to the North. The capital of Poland is Warsaw. The population of Poland is 38,500.000. The native language is Polish. Many people speak Russian, German and English. Poland’s currency is Zloty (1 zl =100 groszy). The main religion is Roman Catholic one (95%) but also there are Protestant, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist and other communities. Climate in Poland is moderate. The average temperature in the summer is about 19oC (66oF). There are hot days when the temperature is above 30oC (86oF). The coldest winter months are generally January and February with temperatures below zero –13oC (-25oF).

History in brief

9 century Polane, who lived in the regions known later as Great Poland, were the predecessors of their oldest reigning dynasty in Poland, the Piasts
966 Mieszko I converted Poland to Christianity
1000 Emperor Otto III made a solemn pilgrimage to the grave of Saint Adalbert to Gniezno. He met Boleslaus the Brave, Mieszko I son. During the meeting the creation of an archbishopric in Gniezno and of several subordinate bishoprics was announced.
10,11 centuries Emergence of Poland’s oldest towns
1138 The beginning of the division period
1320 Ladislaus the Short coronation: the final step to country’s unification
1410 The Battle of Grunwald: one of the greatest battles of the Middle Ages between King Jagiello and Teutonic Order
1772-1795 Poland’s partition into three parts which belonged to Austria, Prussia and Russia
May 3, 1791 Constitution-the second in the world which formulated principles of government in written form
After 1815 Reactionary tendencies were strengthened in the policies of the governments of Russia, Austria and Prussia
29 November 1830 The beginning of the November Insurrection
January 1863 January Insurrection
1914-1918 World War I
1918 Poland was reborn as a democratic state
April 23, 1935 April Constitution was passed
1935 Death of Józef Piłsudski
1935-39 Mass strikes
1939-1945 World War II
1950-56 Six-year plan: construction of many new plants (Motorcar Factory in Warsaw, Lenin Iron in Cracow, Lorry Factory in Lublin etc)
1976 Strikes
1978 John Paul II-Polish Pope
1980 Solidarity Movement
1989 Round Table Negotiations
1990 Lech Walesa –president
1995 Aleksander Kwaśniewski-president
2005 Lech Kaczynski- president
2010 Bronisław Komorowski- president